клитор фото бесплатный просмотр порно роликов и видио знакомство в .. гей молоденькие в латексе фото германия borken знакомство с бучаками . Даже беглое знакомство с этими публикациями позволяет проследить сторонников фашистской Германии. Однако «злейший враг Советов» Therefore his every element has the idea, intention, which should not be broken. Ошоноң менән файҙаланып, Бучак фамилиялы украин кешеhе англи: кан. Since the Tatars had broken open the gates by invading the West, it was feared in .. He appealed to all the monks in Germany to pray for a positive outcome. дети Тулуя-Менгу (Менку) и Бучак; сыновья Угэдея-Гуюк и Кадан [39в, с. на близкое знакомство аталыка с Посольским дьяком А.Я. Щелкаловым и с.
Julian took this letter very seriously indeed, and handed it to the papal emissary in Hungary, who was both a representative of the curia and an advisor to the king of Hungary.
Whether the emissary actually informed the curia remains uncertain. In short, the message was not given any priority. A year or two after this letter, new reports about the Tatars reached the West through a Hungarian bishop. Copies of these messages reached England and are preserved in the Chronica Majora of the Benedictine monk Matthew Paris Matthaeus Parisiensisand also on the Annals of Waverley an abbey in the county of Surrey [1, p. The letter was reportedly written by a Hungarian bishop to the bishop or arch-dean of Paris.
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The letter states that scouts had established that the Tatars had come very near to the Hungarian border. The bishop s final conclusion was that the Tatars would invade the West within five years. In reality, the invasion would come even sooner [1, p.ЕДЕМ В ЦЕЛЛЕ . ЗНАКОМСТВО С ВОЛОДЕЙ . Mantyk GERMANY
Representatives of an Islamic-Shi ite sect unexpectedly appealed to the kings of France and England for military aid This came about because the Tatars had started a campaign of conquest in Persia and the Caucasus. It seems remarkable that this sect appealed to the West for aid, but they had little choice because they were considered heretics by the rest of the Muslim world. In his Chronica Majora Matthew Paris describes the approaching calamity of like this: About this time, special ambassadors were sent by the Saracens, chiefly on behalf of the Old man on the Mountain 11, to the French King, telling him that a monstrous and inhuman race homines monstruosi et inhumani had burst from the northern mountains, and had taken possession of the extensive, rich lands of the east; that they had depopulated Hungary Major the region between the Volga and the Urals; H.
This powerful and noble Saracen messenger, who had come to the French King, was sent on behalf of the whole of the people of the East, to tell them these things; and he asked assistance from the Western nations, the better to be able to repress the fury of the Tartars: Albans, north of London.
He only rarely ventured abroad, but he was in touch with many important people of his age. Through them, he was able to read numerous documents and letters. In fact, he had an extraordinary interest in the Tatars, and possessed the most extensive documentary record about them that existed in the West.
Saracens were predominantly Muslims from the Levant southwestern Asia. It is likely that this event caused Matthew Paris attention to pique. From then on, he annually reported about the Tatars. From onwards, after the Tatar incursion into Europe, he alters his tone.
He then starts using negative terminology when describing the Tatars, as is apparent in the following quote from the Chronica Majora from The men are inhuman and like beasts, they should sooner be called monsters than men. They are thirsty for blood, which they drink, they tear and devour the meat of dogs and men, they dress in bull-hide and are armed with iron lances. They are short and stocky in bodytheir strength does not wane, they are invincible in war and indefatigable in their toil.
They know no human law, have no pity and are more ferocious than bears or lions. They know only their own language, and no other people has learned it [14, p ]. All those who viewed the enemy s army from on high were appalled by the inhuman cruelty of these henchmen of the Antichrist, and told the governor about the horrible wailing by his Christian subjects, who were surprised and brutally killed in all adjoining provinces, no matter their rank, position, age or gender.
The Tatar chieftains and their inhuman barbarous followers feasted on the corpses of the inhabitants and left only gnawed bones for the vultures; it was remarkable, however, that the greedy and insatiable vultures refused to touch the scraps left by the Tatars. Daily, old and crippled women were given to their cannibals for nourishment.
Young and beautiful women were not devoured, but were overpowered even as they wept and wailed in their violent and unnatural defilement, the breasts of tender virgins cut off to serve as delicacies for their leaders, their bodies used as sustenance [20, p ]. The image of the Tatars in the West in the 13 th century was far from reliable, aside from some astute observations by Julian. Stereotypes and prejudices were all around. Europeans had gotten quite a shock when it became clear that the Tatars were truly at Europe s gates.
Despite all the warnings, people in the West were still not aware of the true scale of the Tatar threat. Even worse, there was a certain carelessness fueled by recognition of the Roman primacy among ever more people [10, p. Was the invasion of the West a surprise? In the end of and the beginning ofthe Northeastern-Russian towns of Vladimir, Rjazan and Suzdal came under attack, followed in by the southwestern areas of Russia; by the entire Caucasus was under Tatar control. Reactions to the invasion of Europe went through three stages: Only God knows who they are and where they come from.
We don t know where they come from and where they went. Only God knows whence He found them to inflict them on us, as a result of our sins [6, p.
To the inhabitants of Europe the invasion came as a complete surprise. InMatthew Paris wrote that the Tatars had crashed into Europe like a sudden bolt of lightning [6, p. We have already seen, from the reports of the two missionary journeys that the Hungarian Dominican Julian had undertaken in the region of the Urals between andthat this clap of thunder had come less sudden and as less of a surprise than Matthew makes out here. Those reports however were not acted upon.
Such letters and messages were intended to demoralize opponents in advance. But why should Europe take action? Hungary had been resisting attacks by steppes-peoples for centuries.
Why would it be different this time? It was only after the fall and sack of Kiev on December 6 th of that the king felt obliged to take securitymeasures, though these were scoffed at by the Tatars. Kiev Clevathe biggest city of the kingdom, was conquered, just like the entire kingdom, its inhabitants defeated and its countryside turned into a desert [7, p. With the western part of Russia conquered, the road to Poland was clear, and a part of the Tatar army marched on to Cracow and Breslau. To prevent Polish and Hungarian princes from assisting each other, the Tatars decided to simultaneously invade in three places: On March 18 th of Cracow was razed A few weeks later, on April 9 th ofa German-Polish cavalry army was annihilated at Liegnitz in German: Tactically, the Tatars were very strong, alternating between feints and retreats to wrong-foot their opponents, and employing swift counterattacks.
The Tatar strategy at this battle was aimed at protecting their own main army, which was marching on Hungary, in order to prevent the Poles to send assistance to Hungary.
Aside from tactical tricks, they made use of existing disagreements between the Polish 12 Frederick II himself later admitted that he had underestimated the Tatar threat. This melody is played to warn the city of the imminent Tatar attack, and is played four times: During the fourth melody, the bugler suddenly stops. Ostensibly, the original bugler was killed by an arrow to his neck, which is why the melody is not completed.
After the Battle of Liegnitz, the Tatar troops eventually reunited with their main army in Hungary. The Tatars once again used the same tactics of encirclement that had proven so effective in earlier battles: The Hungarians had underestimated the Tatar danger, their courage, offensive power and tactics completely. His authority had eroded [7, p. To Batu however, Hungary remained unconquered as long as the king was at large, especially since the king had dared to refuse the great khan s orders.
The fleeing king was pursued through Slavonia and Croatia, to the Dalmatian coast [7, p. Most towns, castles and monasteries in Hungary were barely walled and practically indefensible, and were easy prey for the Tatar onslaught [10, p. The surviving population was systematically and premeditatedly slaughtered, to serve as a horrible deterrent to would-be resistance against the Tatars The Battle of Mohi was given great symbolic meaning, not just because the loss of this battle meant that all of Europe came under Tatar threat, but also Christianity.
According to contemporaries, as a result of this event a state of panic ensued in the West, reaching both Spain and the Netherlands [10, p.
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These were preceded by diplomatic dueling on the heels of Tatar demands of subjugation. If this was refused, a brutal and merciless reckoning would follow [7, p.
He refused to have his soldiers fall under the command of the king. When that threatened to happen, he took his troops back to Austria.
Perhaps the Tatar military superiority is best explained as a combination of strategic insight, mobility, organization, discipline, strike force and flexibility. The Tatar army possessed great herds of horses, and its soldiers were toughened and lived a sober life. As is reflected in his reports, the Dominican Julian was highly impressed by what he saw and heard about the Tatar army [3, p ]. Its horsemen rode small, agile horses, and they were able to fire arrows while mounted and their arrows had a greater reach than any contemporary Western army.
These arrows could penetrate armor, whereas the Tatar s own protection consisted of strips of boiled leather tough enough to resist the enemy s arrows. Commanders were able to easily move large units by using their widely enforced discipline, in stark contrast to the more individualistic way of making war employed by the Western knights [10, p.
The female warriors that fought along with the men were just as warlike, just as skillful and just as brave as the male warriors. According to Brother Jordan quoted by Matthew Paris: Their women ride in full armor and spare no-one. The woman who fights best, is seen as desirable, as it is with us with the women who weave and sew best [3, p.
The army was a well-oiled and highly disciplined fighting machine. It was divided according to a decimal system: Allies were allowed their customs and traditions, providing they obeyed the Tatar warlords commands. In battle, the tactics used often consisted of provoking the opponents, followed by encirclement and attacks in wave after concentric wave. In doing so, the Tatars used scouts who could relay messages over great distances by using an ingenious system of signaling by flag.
This method of communication also allowed for different Tatar units to keep in contact with each-other. Another tried tactic was the use of hostages as a living shield. They were forced to form the vanguard, often only armed with spears. If they attempted to flee, they were killed, which is why they were very fierce in their attacks: Another relevant point was the composition of the opposing armies.
The Hungarian army primarily consisted of knights who, due to their heavy armor and crude weaponry, were far less agile than the Tatars.
It was an army, moreover, that lacked unity, was lead poorly, and whose separate units did not know what the others were doing.
The Tatar army had a much better organization and leadership, and also had at its disposal modern weaponry, like huge crossbows and the thenrecently discovered gunpowder from China [11, p.
But the most important thing about the Tatars was their strategy, also described as Tsunami Strategy: Significantly, defenders were generally overwhelmed by the use of multiple invading armies, and relentless pursuit of military leaders. The point of this method was not to simply conquer huge swathes of territory, but to conquer a designated region and by using forays and destructive raids, create a buffer around the annexed region.
The Invasion of the Christian West by the Tatars Mongols was not given the chance to make contact with his vassals and allies. The Tatars then governed and controlled the newly annexed area while their armies remained on the frontier [12, p ].
All this explains how a numerically inferior Tatar army could defeat a far larger Hungarian army [10, p. In short, the Hungarian army was ill-prepared for the coming of the Tatar army, and the tactics it would employ. For that matter, the same could be said of European knightly armies in general.
This struggle had a long preliminary history, a history of mounting, reciprocal distrust. The seeds for the troublesome relationship between Frederick II and the pope were sown in the German town of Aix, where the then twenty-years-old Frederick was crowned King of the Romans in and promised to go on crusade. This promise was repeatedly deferred, for different reasons. When pope Honorius III in once again called upon Frederick to go on crusade, he threatened him with excommunication if he did not depart.
Eventually Frederick departed for Jerusalem from Brindisi inbut he fell sick en route and returned to Italy. Upon hearing this, the new pope Gregory IX Honorius III had died in March promptly excommunicated the emperor because he felt his illness was just another excuse.
When Frederick was cured, inhe finally departed, but now as an excommunicate. Once in the Holy Land, he succeeded in winning Jerusalem for a period of ten years, by engaging in diplomatic negotiations with the Muslims, who were lead by the sultan Malik al-kamil full name: This crusade is known as the Sixth Crusade.
The pope, however, was dissatisfied: In the summer of Frederick was forced to return to Sicily, because the pope was attempting to take control over Sicily into his own hands while Frederick was absent.
Frederick quickly succeeded in taking control of the situation, but his relationship with Pope Gregory IX was seriously damaged. Gregory was forced, by his military weakness, to come to an arrangement with Frederick. Peace was signed in San Germano on August the 28 th ofand Frederick s excommunication was lifted. Despite the peace, neither Pope Gregory nor Frederick was really willing to adjust their opposing views about the primacy in secular power. Their mutual relationship quickly soured, when it was discovered that in the struggle for the North- Italian cities none of the parties was willing to compromise: Two opposing worlds The pope and the emperor represented two opposing, irreconcilable worldviews.
Since the second half of the 11 th century, popes no longer saw themselves as merely the successors of St Peter, but also as the vicar of Christ. Gregory felt that he, as pope, could act as judge over the secular princes. Frederick however, like his grandfather Frederick I Barbarossa before him, was convinced of equality between pope and emperor. The emperor wasn t just pre-ordained by God, he received a clerically similar sacral status through the anointment with chrism during the ritual of coronation: From this followed his political position that God had instructed him to bring peace and justice, and he was accountable to no-one.
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Tensions between pope and emperor mounted to such an extent that Frederick was excommunicated for a second time on March 20 th of At this new excommunication the pope portrayed Frederick II as a selfproclaimed heretic and the beast of blasphemy from the Apocalypse. This time, the excommunication would not be lifted. Because Frederick refused to accept the pope s authority over the worldly princes, and because he posed a threat to the independence of the Roman church, Gregory was determined to subdue Frederick by any means necessary.
All of Europe was drawn into the ensuing propagandabattle, which was unprecedentedly sharp in tone on both sides [16, p ]. A call for aid The first requests for aid from Eastern Europe came against this background. The patriarch presented himself to Frederick s court in February or March ofto request his aid for Hungary.
The Tatar invasion, however, was not just a threat to Hungary, but to the entire Christian West. The libertas Christiana was at stake.
The Tatars became part of God s plan for the world. They were seen as a scourge and a tool of God, used by Him to punish the Christians for their sins and the princes and prelates in particular for their carelessness.
And so an appeal for intervention to both pope and emperor was to be made. The appeal, however, did not lead to a reconciliation between both parties. Mounting a united offensive against the Tatars was instrumental, but the odds of that happening seemed more remote than ever. Who was the true leader of the world, the pope or the emperor? Who will save the Christian West? There is a sense of gross underestimation of the scale and urgency of the Tatar danger in the letters that Frederick wrote to the other European monarchs, like his brother in law Henry III of England.
The emperor appealed to all to unite and stop the Tatar enemy, and in this way to fight for peace. The Invasion of the Christian West by the Tatars Mongols his bad experiences and relations with the pope, a united stand against the Tatars was out of the question. However, by showing his good intentions, he could demonstrate to the world that the lack of forceful action against the Tatars was not his fault.
His letters emphasize that he was unable to act without peace between himself and the pope, warn against the Tatars exploiting the disunity in the Christian world, complain of the pope preaching a crusade against him instead of the Tatars and Muslims, and reaffirm his readiness to mount a new crusade. In short, he wanted to maximize any advantage he could glean from the situation and apply it in his conflict with the pope [10, p. The pope had to realize that he would be risking the future existence of the Christian faith if he prevented the Emperor and the other monarchs from mounting a united defense against the Tatars.
This was of course a reference to his renewed excommunication, and the threat of deposition which he was facing [18, p ]. In this letter he made an appeal to face the Tatars together.
In passing, he mentioned his apparent demonstrations of humility towards the pope, and fulminated about the ongoing and systematic way by which the pope obstructed him in his duty of making peace and justice prevail.
How deeply and how often would We have let ourselves be humiliated and have We demonstrated all good will, if only the Roman Pope would dispense with his annoyance over the rift between Us, which annoyance he has cast out over all the world, and would temper and cease altogether his efforts, which betray the impetuosity of unrestrained passion, and allow Us to reign in peace over those who by law are Our subjects and keep them in obedience, and no longer protect and strengthen a great part of those who have risen in rebellion to Us, so that after We have brought peace to our realm and chastened the rebels [meaning the Tatars, H.
Frederick continues by suggesting to Henry III that it s past time that the Christian West should unites in its common interest to send the Devil back to Hell: May your highness therefore take precautions, and while those common enemies fight their battles in the neighboring realms, look to thyself, to resist them with swift aid; for they have prepared themselves within their own lands to, with complete disregard for their own lives, subjugate the entire Christian West, may God forbid it, and to extirpate the Christian faith and the name of Christ.
But we have hope in the Lord Jesus Christ, under whose guidance we have so far, without enemies, triumphed, and that those too, who have crawled forth from Tartarus [Hell, H. He was well-informed about the Tatar warriors, their martial prowess and the imminent danger. In going about this, he employed the same style of approach as he did in his famous book about falconry De Arte Venandi cum Avibus: He then assessed which allies he would need in his fight against the Tatars.
He reached out for aid in this fight to kings all over Europe and the pope. By acting in this way he gave a special meaning to his imperial status: The pope should be grateful to him for that.
He could show his gratitude by withdrawing all the accusations against him, and to rescind the upcoming trial, which was intended to depose him as emperor.
But that didn t happen. He promised to do everything that was in his power to give aid. He appealed to all the monks in Germany to pray for a positive outcome.
ZOLOTOORDYNSKOE OBOZRENIE= G OLDEN H ORDE R EVIEW Vol. 5, no. 2
The rest was up to having faith in Gods charitable aid. He could not help but reference his struggle with the Emperor at the end of the letter. According to the pope, it had been Frederick who had weakened the fight against the common enemy. He simply reversed the question of guilt: In this way both pope and Emperor tried to use the Tatar invasion to force the other to concessions, but neither was willing to take the first step. Tempers had run too high. In Frederick was at the zenith of his power.
He considered himself untouchable and acted arrogantly. In the process, he lost sight of reality. To all appearances it seems that around that time the political tide definitely began to turn, and that the good fortune, which he had hitherto known, began to desert him. It didn t seem like that when on August 22 nd oflike a gift from Heaven, Pope Gregory suddenly died. The college of cardinals was divided in choosing a successor, and took a year and a half in electing a new pope.
The new pope was determined to play a leading role in Europe, and as vicar of Christ to take a position above both the Emperor and the kings of the West. This means that Frederick s relations with subsequent popes were weighed down with a principal problem. Frederick reigned as Roman-German Emperor by the grace of God and considered himself equivalent to the popes.
However, the popes invoked their universal right, which reached further than merely ecclesiastical authority, to place themselves above all worldly rulers, including Frederick II. This was the status quo in Western Europe in Time to return to the Tatars. None of the 20 De Arte Venandi cum Avibus, litterally: About the Art of Hunting with Birds, was written in the forties of the 13 th century and is characterized by a, for that day and age, modern, scientific approach, namely by objective observation, without theological or teleological double meanings.
Ben Crul for his input in the discussion about Frederick II s scientific approach. On the face of it, there does not seem to have been a military reason for the Tatars to withdraw. Batu may have had personal ambitions in the fight for succession, but we cannot be certain. The Tatar army pulled back through Bulgaria and reached the Black Sea inleaving a trail of death and destruction in its wake.
The retreat of the Tatar army has been cause for much discussion amongst modern historians over the last decades. Was Batu reluctant to fight in the heavily populated German princedoms, where the weather had a detrimental effect on the Tatar s bows? Or was he simply unwilling to march further because he had accomplished his goal of securing the western border of the Mongol Empire?
According to Sinor, the size of the Tatar army that invaded Europe should be estimated attowarriors. Their strength lay in their cavalry, with a seemingly inexhaustible supply of horses. Each warrior had at least three to four horses at his disposal, which meant a total of no less thanhorses were required. This in turn would require 42, square kilometres of pasture to feed these horses.
This much land was simply not available in Hungary. The Tatar command was in a comparable situation to a commander of a modern armoured division running out of fuel. Going further west, crossing the Danube, would have exacerbated the situation ever more. It was customary for the Tatars to stop the campaigning season in the spring, and let their horses roam free to graze, look for water and procreate, so that they would be ready for war in the fall. According to Sinor this was the reason why the Tatars withdrew from a destroyed and overgrazed Hungary in the spring of ; they went looking for steppes for their herds, the basis of Tatar military power [15, p.
В своей работе режиссер использует компьютерную анимацию. Благодаря нашим мастер классам из последних мастер-класс режиссера, сценариста, писателя, драматурга, обладателя "Золотой камеры" Канского международного кинофестиваля Эдгара Керета, начинающие режиссеры не будут совершать ошибки в режиссуре.
Мы имеем честь вас пригласить к сотрудничеству по созданию качественных фильмов, который увидят десятки тысяч жителей Украины и зарубежа. Фильмы будут продемонстрированы в Мелитополе, а также других городах Украины, будет опубликованы в крупных сообществах Вконтакте.
Отправлены на международные кинофестивали, размещены в еженедельной e-mail рассылке нашей организации по СНГ с более 54, подписчиками. Также для всех будет официальный статус партнера и следующие рекламные возможности: Многие наши проекты участвовали на краудфандинговой платформе и многие фильмы поддержал: Статья на кинопоиске http: В октябре в Санкт-Петербурге начались съемки проекта "28 панфиловцев", собравшего в этом году на краудфандинговой платформе "Бумстартер" рекордные три миллиона рублей.
В октябре и ноябре свет увидят и другие фильмы, снятые независимыми энтузиастами - как профессионалами, так и любителями - на свои и народные средства. Среди них чего только нет: КиноПоиск проследил судьбу восьми кинопроектов, успешно собравших средства на "Бумстартере", и узнал, как снимать кино без студий, государства и огромных бюджетов, на что хватает собранных денег и какие минусы могут быть у краудфандинга как системы финансирования.
Фильм о подвиге 28 бойцов й стрелковой дивизии под командованием генерала И. Панфилова, осенью года вставших на пути у немецкого танкового батальона. Режиссер и автор сценария Андрей Шальопа, за которым числится независимый мокьюментари-хоррор "Поймать ведьму".